**Following errata apply to Canoco 5.1 manual printing that contains, on its second page, a copyright date range "1998-2018".**

pg. 162: After Eq (5.1) and the first sentence ending with "covariate" add:

In double-constrained ordination (dc-CA and dc-PCA), the adjusted R^{2} is calculated by replacing the "(*n*-1)/(*n*-DF-1)" term in Equation (5.1) by "(*n*-1)(*m*-1)/((*n*-1)(*m*-1)-df_{E}*df_{T})" where *n* is the number of cases, *m* the number of RV (typically, species), df_{E} the number of degrees of freedom of the predictors for cases, and df_{T} the number of degrees of freedom of the predictors for RV. Without multicollinearities and for numerical predictors, df_{E} is equal to the number of explanatory variables (environmental variables) and df_{T} is equal to the number of traits. The rationale for this definition is that (*n*-1)(*m*-1) is the full dimension of the interaction space between cases and RV which is modelled by dc-CA and dc-PCA by a space of df_{E} * df_{T} degrees of freedom. Note that the adjusted R^{2 }so defined reduces to Equation (5.1) if df_{T} = *m*-1, i.e. if there are effectively no constraints on the RV-scores.

pg. 198: In Table 5.18, the reciprocal regression between the case and response variable (RV) scores hold true up to a constant of proportionality γ = √(n*m) or in the weighted case: √(TSS)/TAU (defined in Eq (4.7) on pg. 131). Replace the first "=" by "= γ" in all lines with a case *x** or RV score *b* on the left-hand side of the equation. The biplot approximations are correct.

pg. 201: In Table 5.20, similar changes as in Table 5.18 are needed. Replace the first "=" by "= γ" in all lines with an unconstrained case *x** or RV score *b* on the left-hand side of the equation.

pg. 218: In Table 5.36, similar changes as in Table 5.20 are needed. Replace the first "=" by "= γ" in all lines with an unconstrained case *x** or unconstrained RV score *b* *on the left-hand side of the equation.

pg. 224: In Eq. (5.11) and (5.12), replace the "=" by "= γ". See the erratum for pg. 198 above.

pg. 229: In Eq. (5.27) and (5.28), replace the "=" by "= γ". See the erratum for pg. 198 above.

**Following errata apply to Canoco 5 manual printing that contains, on its second page, a copyright date range "1998-2012".**

pg. 23, 2nd line of 3rd paragraph: should now read "and check below the list that the chosen worksheets will define 2 project tables. After"...

pg. 24, 3rd paragraph: replace first sentence with the following three sentences: "Both data-tables are imported into a new Canoco 5 project and Canoco informs you that the *Environment* data table contains factors. This is not a problem report, rather additional information that you might even suppress for the next import event. After you close this box with *OK*, a dialog titled *Introductory Analysis* is shown."

pg. 25: figure at top has changed, so that the full page looks as follows.

pg. 32: figure in the middle part has changed, so that the full page looks as follows.

pg. 102: both figures have changed, so that the full page looks as follows.

pgs. 104-106: content of Tables 4.2 and 4.3 has changed, so the three pages look as follows.

pg. 115: figure has changed and the description below it was extended, so that the full page looks as follows.

pg. 116: first figure has changed and a new paragraph was inserted below the second figure, so that the full page looks as follows.

pg. 134: figure has changed and the full page looks as follows.

pg. 137: figure has changed and the full page looks as follows.

pg. 150: figure has changed as well as the text of next-to-last paragraph, so that the full page looks as follows.

pg. 163: second figure has changed, as well as the text of the paragraph that follows it, so that the full page looks as follows.

pg. 179: insert following paragraph before the one starting with "In linear methods":

"With more than 100 explanatory variables, the above correlation matrix is not inserted into the log view, unless this default behaviour is overridden (see section 7.3.3.1.8). "

pg. 288, 6th and 7th line of the last paragraph: change value 12 to 14 and value 43 to 22.

pg. 294: the figure has changed, so that the full page looks as follows.

pg. 297: the figure has changed, so that the full page looks as follows.

pg. 328: the figure has changed, so that the full page looks as follows.

pg. 349: the figure has changed, so that the full page looks as follows.

pg. 380: second figure has changed, so that the full page looks as follows.

pg. 382: after the 1st paragraph append following two:

"*AIC with finite sample correction* - when chosen, Canoco calculates (and uses during model selection) the AIC with finite sample correction, proposed by Hurvich & Tsai (1989).*Do not output correlation matrix* - when checked, the matrix of correlations among explanatory or supplementary variables is not placed into log when there are >100 predictors."

pg. 394: replace second half of 2nd paragraph (i.e. the text starting with "Canoco 5 computes") with the following text:

"When the *AIC with finite sample correction* option is checked (see section 7.3.3.1.8), Canoco computes and uses AICc version of the AIC statistic, as proposed by Hurvich & Tsai (1989)."

pg. 413: the second figure and the first part of the paragraph below it has changed, so that the full page now looks as follows. Note that a part of the text now overflows into page 414, but there is no change in that text.

pg. 453: before the section 7.7 (Graph submenu) insert following text:

"7.6.11 Clone unlocked

This command is enabled only when the active analysis was created by the New Analysis Wizard, and creates a customizable copy that can be more freely modified."

pg. 460: Append following text at the end of first paragraph:

"Additionally, when you choose axis flipping in analysis options (see section 7.6.9), it is applied in XY(Z) diagram whenever an axis represents ordination scores."

pg. 487: after Hope, A.C.A. citation, insert following one:

"Hurvich, C.M. & Tsai, C.L. (1989) Regression and time series model selection in small samples. Biometrika, 76, 297-307."

pg. 493-496: several new entries were added to Index, so that it now looks as follows.